Whitewashing of trees when whitening in the garden in spring and autumn
Whitewashing of trees is a long-known agricultural technique. Nevertheless, some summer residents neglect it, considering it an unnecessary decorative relic of the Soviet past. But whitewashing is very important for trees. In this article we will talk about the benefits of this procedure, the most effective formulations and some important nuances that will be useful to know about.
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Why bleach trees
The procedure for coating the lower part of a tree trunk with a composition based on emulsion or lime is two main functions:
- Protection from the harmful factors of the world, namely, the differences in night and day temperatures, heating in direct sunlight during thaws, winds, ice rains and frosts.
- Protection against parasites. The composition with which you cover the wood closes the microcracks in the trunk and prevents the penetration of pests and pathogenic microorganisms (fungi, bacteria, viruses) into the internal tissues of the tree.
At the same time, the procedure should be carried out with both young and old trees. The applied whitewash protects young trees with a delicate and thin top layer from spring temperature drops, when the sun warms up the trunk very much during the day, and frost occurs at night. Without whitewash, the protective part of the wood of a young tree can crack, which will result in injury to internal tissues.
The whitewashing of age specimens has the same goal. Usually their entire crust is in cuts, cracks, chips and small wounds. The applied paint clogs up the ulcers and creates an impermeable thin film.
This film prevents parasites, fungi and bacteria from entering.
INTERESTING. The practice of whitewashing roadside trees was widespread during the Great Patriotic War. The trees along the roads were whitewashed so that military vehicles could travel at night with the lights off, without fear of enemy aircraft raids.
When to whiten trees in the garden in spring
For the season you need to carry out from 1 to 3 procedures:
- Before the awakening of plants, in March or even the last days of February;
- In the summer (in July);
- After harvesting and leaf fall (in October - November).
The number of procedures depends on the condition of the trees, as well as the quality and durability of the composition used.
Spring whitewashing is in most cases auxiliary in nature. With this painting we update the upper protective layer. If the whitewash completely disappeared during the winter, then a full painting is carried out.
It is necessary to carry out a full-fledged spring procedure in the very first days of spring, and if you did not whitewash in the fall, then do it in the last days of winter!
The choice of a specific date correlates with the temperature outside. It is undesirable to work in the cold, but you do not need to wait for warming up to 10 degrees. Try to whiten the trees on a clear day, when the temperature is about 3-5 degrees Celsius.
The benefits of painting are obvious. While the tree stands without leaves, it is easily warmed by the March sun. The sap flow begins. The bark and internal tissues are heated. But at night the temperature drops, and in the morning there may be frosts. As a result, internal liquids freeze, and the wood bursts. Cracks appear - freezing.
The applied whitewash protects the tree.
It is not necessary to rush with updating painting. It can be held in the second March decade and even in the first days of April.
IMPORTANT! It is necessary to conduct whitewashing before the start of the main garden work.
Is it worth whitening trees in autumn
Many summer residents consider autumn whitewashing unnecessary, although the situation is exactly the opposite. It is necessary to carry out the procedure in the fall. By time, you need to plan whitewashing after the leaves fall. In different regions of our country, this is October or November.
On the street should be about 3-5 degrees heat. It is better to start work in the morning, but when dew or frost has passed. So the paint dries and does not peel off the first night.
Autumn procedure is considered the most effective.
All due to the fact that the tree bark for the winter becomes both a refuge for pests and parasites, and food for rodents. The outer woody shell also suffers from icing, severe cold winds, frostbite, etc.
The applied composition acts as a shield, which does not pass the spores of fungi, prevents the penetration of insects under the bark and protects against atmospheric effects.
Based on the foregoing, we can conclude that autumn whitewashing is an important part of caring for the garden.
How to whiten trees?
Since Soviet times, fruit and ornamental trees were whitewashed with ordinary slaked lime. This is affordable cheap material. It’s easy to work with. But there are also disadvantages. Lime weakly protects and is easily washed off by rains.
Now hardware stores provide the gardener with a huge selection of tools for whitewashing. These are chalk and lime for trees, water-based paints and acrylic paints. The latter are much more effective than lime and chalk solution, but also cost significantly more.
Lime and chalk mixtures do not adhere well to wood, so glue or soap is added to them. Also, for disinfection, copper sulfate or bordeaux is used as an additional component.
A more modern option is paints, water-based, acrylic and water-dispersed. These are ready-made compounds that contain components for adhesion and disinfection. The paint adheres quite well to the cortex and also allows the trunk to “breathe”. Minus the use of paints - you can work only at +3 (the minimum allowable temperature).
Another good, but rather expensive option is acrylic paint. It lasts for two winters, is easy to apply and does not require additional treatments.
IMPORTANT! Garden whitewash should meet the following requirements. First, the trunk should “breathe”. Secondly, do not wash off and do not rise "coat".
What lime to use?
Lime mortars are still widely used for whitewashing. It is necessary to buy lime for gardening, and not building mixtures.
It is imperative to properly prepare the suspension. The solution should look like sour cream. That is, so that it does not run off like water and does not show off with a fur coat.
Lime is bred together with an adhesive and copper sulphate. You can use PVA, casein glue and Bordeaux as a substitute for copper sulfate.
The simplest recipe looks like this: take a bucket of water, add 2.5 kg of lime into it, stir it, add 0.5 kg of vitriol and 200 g of glue. Knead everything carefully so that there are no lumps. It is better to add water gradually so as not to pour too much.
We give a little time for the suspension to thicken, and begin to evenly cover the bark with the composition.
NOTE! Trunks can only be painted with quicklime or quicklime. It is not allowed to cover living wood with bleach.
How to breed lime for whitewashing trees in spring
If for work you chose slaked lime, then breed it as follows.
A package of lime is poured into a container and poured with a mug of hot water. Next, stir until a homogeneous mass. Then we add more water so that the solution thickens and begins to resemble sour cream. All this time you need to stir.
To get "milk" the proportion should be this: 3 parts water to 1 part lime. But at the same time, glue (casein or PVA) must be added to keep the composition on the bark.
ON A NOTE. Do not pour a lot of water at once. Add it gradually and mix thoroughly.
If you chose quicklime, then first of all it must be extinguished. A couple of hours before the procedure, fill the bowel with hot water (for 3 kg you need a bucket of water). The extinguishing process will begin, which will take about 40 minutes. Then another hour is needed for the suspension to cool.
Next, pour an adhesive, about 500 grams of Bordeaux or copper sulphate, again mix thoroughly and evenly cover the lower half of the trunk.
How to breed lime for whitewashing trees in autumn
Autumn whitewashing must be approached very responsibly. Better to take sustainable garden paints. They will not wash off in autumn rains. And this is very important. If you can calmly apply lime in the spring, and then whitewash in the summer, update the autumn painting in winter, it will not work.
But, if you decide to use lime in the old fashion, then be sure to mix the paste in the mixture.
The simplest and most effective whitewash recipe is this:
Thoroughly mix 2 kg of slaked lime with 2-3 tablespoons of flour paste and 0.3 kg of copper sulphate to make a uniform “flour”.
Now we begin to add water and mix thoroughly. Water must be poured into a bucket. Maybe a little less. The main thing is to get sour cream. But too thick do not need to do either. One should be smeared with a brush, and not sticky in lumps.
It is better not to whiten very young trees with such a composition. But mature strong specimens can be processed with such lime.
Indelible whitewashing of trees, what is it?
As the name implies, this is such a composition that does not disappear from the tree an hour after the start of the first rain.
If you want to protect your garden for a long time, then use garden paint as indelible whitewash. You can take any: acrylic, water-dispersive, water-based. Match your budget.
The best of these three is acrylic, but it is the most expensive. Its advantage, in addition to a long service life, is the presence in the composition of special components that are useful for bark and fight pests and fungi.
Buy paint only from trusted manufacturers, do not try to save money by taking a cheap Chinese product. In this case, it is better to buy a proven and inexpensive garden lime.
How to whiten trees step by step?
Before starting the procedure, it is necessary to determine the height of the whitewash of fruit and ornamental trees.
Ideally, you need to cover the whole tree. But in practice, this is almost impossible due to the high cost of the procedure and its complexity.
The minimum whitewash height is part of the trunk from the base to the first skeletal branch. If you do not have a very large garden, or you have enough whitewash, then you can whitewash the lower branches to half their length.
The first step is to clean the barrel.
During the summer, the lower half of the tree is abundantly covered with moss, exfoliates, cracks. In addition, parasites gnaw her and injure fungi. All this must be removed from the tree. Cleaning should be done carefully so as not to cause new injuries to the plant. It is necessary to use washcloths, rags, soft gloves. Iron tools are not recommended.
Stripping should be carried out in wet weather. If land has settled on the street, then clean tree trunks in the morning until the sun has risen too high.
Slivers, dirt, moss and other debris are carefully collected and burned, as harmful bacteria, egg insects, spores of fungi, etc. hid in it.
The second step is disinfection treatment.
Having cleaned the bark, we carry out disinfection. It is needed to get rid of egg clutches of insects, larvae and pathogenic microorganisms. Disinfection of wounds and cracks also occurs.
Disinfection is carried out with copper-containing agents (for example, Bordeaux mixture, copper sulfate). HOM and Oxychom drugs are also quite effective. From improvised means, you can use a solution based on ash and laundry soap (3 kg of ash per bucket of water and a piece of soap for sticking).
Carrying out disinfection, it is worth alternating the ash infusion and copper-based preparations. This is necessary so that copper does not accumulate in the plant tissues and the soil around.
The third step is to repair the cracks.
Next, we close up all the wounds and cracks that we see. Special preparations must be used: garden var, pasta or biomask. You can use any drug that is available to you at the nearest hardware store.
But it is undesirable to cover up wounds with ordinary enamel. Such paint contains harmful chemical compounds that poison the tree and accumulate in the fruits. Then it is better to use clay with manure. But generally it is better to buy garden paste. It is inexpensive and will last for a long time.
The fourth step is whitewashing.
When the preparatory stages are completed, we cover the bark of the tree with white. It is best to use modern preparations that do not wash off for a long time and have less effect on wood.
For whitewashing, you can use the most ordinary brush, although there are special brushes for whitewashing.
ON A NOTE. Carry out the procedure carefully, do not leave unpainted areas.
IMPORTANT! When preparing the solution, bring it to a uniform consistency. There should not be too thick sediment. Otherwise, it turns out that the liquid that you apply to the bark is ordinary colored water, not a drug.
Is it possible to whiten trees with water-based paint?
Specialized paints for garden trees are becoming increasingly popular. The most popular variety is water-based paint. Its advantage is that it holds well, withstands rains and snow and is almost absolutely safe for wood. In addition, special substances that make up the paint form a protective film on the surface, which protects against overheating and moisture, but allows the tree to “breathe”.
Water emulsion is well suited for the treatment of young trees, since it does not practically do any harm to the bark.
Still there is an option with water dispersible paint. It contains beneficial additives that protect the bark.
Water-based paints dry for about a day.
An important point is the operating temperature. It must be above zero, but +7 heat is recommended. Therefore, the paint is whitened a little later than with a lime solution. However, if you spent an autumn whitewash with a water-based emulsion, then this will not become a problem. She holds well, and it will be possible to update it in April.
NOTE! Paint must certainly be intended for a living tree. You can not use ordinary paints from a hardware store.
What trees can be whitened
Almost all trees should be covered with white. Particular attention should be paid to young plants. They still have a weak bark that does not protect the core well.
Also, special attention should be paid to valuable and most productive varieties.
You can whiten not only fruit trees, but also decorative ones that do not bear fruit, but simply decorate your garden. After all, they also suffer from bad weather and pests in the winter.
And the applied whitewash will protect them and protect them from diseases.
What trees cannot be whitened?
It is generally not recommended to whiten only newly planted trees. Applying a protective layer will become stressful for them and may adversely affect them.
To protect the seedling from negative effects, it is better to close it with a special protective belt or wrap it with rags.
If you still decide to whiten young seedlings, then reduce the concentration of the active substance by half or three.
You can not whiten trees older than 30 years. They already have enough thick bark to protect the internal tissues. In addition, the barrel mopping process will do more harm than good.
Are young trees whitened?
It is quite widely believed that young trees should not be subjected to the procedure, since the chemicals that make up the whitewash can injure the tree. Plus, the paint does not allow the trunk to grow in breadth, as it compresses it.
There is some truth in this statement. Indeed, lime (especially the most ordinary) can burn the bark. But, if you carry out the procedure using modern means or halve the concentration of lime, then whitewashing will not cause any harm.
But you need to carry out the procedure with young trees. The fact is that in the spring, due to sharp fluctuations in day and night temperatures, the delicate tree trunk will receive both a sunburn in the afternoon and a frost-hole at night.
And the applied composition will act as a shell. Light paint will reflect the sun's rays and prevent the barrel from overheating.
ON A NOTE. If you have planted trees in the autumn, then you need to cover them with a protective layer both before winter and after the snow has fallen. That is, next spring.
At what temperature can the procedure be carried out
Spring procedure is carried out on a dry day. It is desirable that it is not higher than 5 degrees of heat. Optimum - about 3 degrees.
If you work with water-based paint, you will have to whiten it when the temperature reaches at least 3 degrees of heat. Recommended temperature is 7 degrees.
An important condition for the procedure is dry and preferably calm weather. So the applied solution will dry on the bark and will not be washed off by the first rain.
Whitewashing should be carried out during the day, preferably in the lunch area (possible a little earlier). This choice of time of day is due to the fact that the air warms up and the morning frosts pass (if any), and the whitewash has time to dry before the evening cold snap.
ON A NOTE. In summer, the procedure is best done in cloudy, but not rainy weather, after about 10 in the morning, but before the onset of midday heat.
Whitewashing is an important procedure that has high practical value. If you are afraid of injury, reduce concentration or use light, harmless drugs. But in no case do not neglect the whitewash if you want to keep your garden.