Rosemary: 5 best varieties for growing a house and rules for care
Rosemary is a spice familiar to every housewife. The plant is actively grown in gardens, used not only for cooking, but also for medical purposes. Is rosemary suitable for growing in an apartment?
Let's look for answers together.
What varieties of rosemary can be grown in the apartment?
Translated from Latin the name of the plant sounds like “sea dew”. It comes from the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, where its lush bushes (pictured) grow under the rays of the warm southern sun.
However, not all types of rosemary are suitable for home maintenance. Specialists recommend individual varieties:
- fragrant or fragrant;
Features and conditions for the cultivation of rosemary on the windowsill
Growing rosemary at home in a pot is quite difficult. The plant requires special conditions and sharply negatively reacts to their non-compliancegets sick and dies.
Let's see how planting and care for rosemary take place at home.
Where to place rosemary
Growing this sunny Mediterranean native in an apartment will require good lighting, so rosemary is placed on the south windows of the house. If there are no windows facing south, you need to arrange additional artificial lighting for the plant.
The temperature regime is built seasonally: in the summer - 20 ... 25 ° C, in the winter - 10 ... 15 ° C. In the summer, it is advisable to keep rosemary on the balcony or loggia, where optimal natural temperature fluctuations are created for it.
Attention! If you ensure the winter regime, the bush will please with abundant flowering in the spring.
Intensive lighting should last at least 6 hours. If the rosemary pots are on the south window, this mode is supported naturally.
When located on other windows, the lack of light is compensated by the use of phytolamps for greenery. LED lights are also suitable.
Pot for growing
Given the voluminous and branched root system of the plant, roomy pots are selected for it. In this case, the width of the container must exceed its height (for example, 25X20 cm).
Ceramic or clay pots are best.: These materials let air through well. Bottom holes are required.
It is important that the earth for the rosemary in the pot is loose and slightly alkaline. The roots of the plant need a free flow of air.
If you take prepared soil for seedlings or land from the garden, add perlite or sand to it.
With independent preparation of the soil, you need to take sheet and turf soil, sand, peat and humus in a ratio of 2: 2: 1: 1: 1.
Attention! Before filling the pot with soil, spill it with a weak solution of potassium permanganate for disinfection.
Methods of propagation of rosemary
Rosemary can be propagated in three ways: division of the bush, cuttings and seeds. The first is the simplest. A well-developed adult plant is divided into parts with roots and planted in pots.
It is much more difficult to get a new plant from seeds.
Preparing and germinating seeds
To successfully sprout rosemary from seeds on the windowsill and get shoots suitable for transplantation, you need undertake a series of preparatory measures:
- Plan sowing at the end of winter - the beginning of spring.
- Wrap the seeds taken for sowing in two layers of wet gauze and soak in it for 2-3 days.
- Put the soil in the sowing tank, moisten it well, distribute the seeds on the surface. Sprinkle them with earth is not necessary.
- Cover with foil.
- Water the seeds every day and ventilate for half an hour.
- In a month shoots should appear. Grow them until 2-3 leaves appear, without removing the greenhouse.
- In individual pots, the shoots are transplanted at the beginning of summer.
Attention! If the first sowing of seeds does not work, you have to repeat the whole process again.
Growing from cuttings
Growing cuttings in an apartment looks simpler and does not require special manipulations. Cuttings are taken from an adult plant, cutting off the upper parts of the branches at an angle.
7-10 cm long enough. The stem should be lignified. The lower leaves of the stem must be reduced by 1/3 of the length.
Sprouted by two methods:
- Put the stalk in a container with water so that it covers it ¼ length and does not reach the leaves. They wait for the roots to grow and then transfer to a pot of soil.
- Planted in wet sand or a mixture of perlite and peat. Before rooting the cuttings, regular spraying is carried out.
For successful rooting, maintain a temperature in the region of 18 ... 22 ° C, put the flowerpots in a well-lit place. Complete rooting occurs at week 3, then you can transplant the sprouts into separate pots.
Care for rosemary after planting and before harvesting
Having dealt with the planting of the plant, we proceed to care for it in order to get the result we need in the form of a plentiful harvest. How to grow rosemary at home, what parameters should be observed?
In watering rosemary, balance is important, the soil in the pot should be moderately moist. The plant does not accept stagnation of moisture, in such conditions it weakens and is easily amenable to diseases.
If the soil is overdried, the bush loses its decorative appearance and poorly develops.
In winter, the amount of watering is reduced. When the plant is kept on the windowsill, where warm air constantly comes from heating radiators, it is necessary to monitor the condition of the soil and do not let her turn into a dry lump.
The need for nutrients arises in rosemary from the beginning of spring to the end of September. In this period fertilizers are applied 2 times a month.
For feeding use complex mixtures for ornamental plants. It is useful to feed a Mediterranean spice with a calcium solution.
Constantly developing, the roots of the plant quickly fill the pot, it is time for its transplantation. How to plant rosemary at home so as not to damage the root system?
- A few hours before the transplant moisten the soil wellso that the soil moves away from the walls of the pot.
- Then the pot is turned over, holding the plant by the trunk, and pulled out with the earthen lump.
- Pour drainage and a layer of soil (2-3 cm) into a new pot.
- The earth with roots is inserted into the center of the tank, and the voids are filled with soil.
- For 2-3 days, the transplanted bush is sent to a shaded place.
Pruning and pinching
While growing spices on the windowsill, I want her to not only give a crop, but also look decent outwardly. You can solve the problem by pinching or trimming.
If your pet has grown a lot, its branches need to be pruned. Decide on the bush height acceptable for you, and cut off all the excess with garden scissors.
For small bushes, you can apply a pinch of apical shoots. Such actions can form a decorative appearance of the plant in height and width.
Diseases and Pests
Having antibacterial properties rosemary copes with pests and diseases, but with illiterate care, she can get tired of fighting and getting sick.
Most often, pests such as aphid, spider mite and scale.
The tick settles on the underside of the leaves, stretches its cobwebs and drinks the juice of the plant. The pest can be eliminated with a solution of onion husks (20 grams of husk per 1 liter of water). Processing is carried out 3 times with an interval of 10 days.
To kill aphids, prepare a tobacco decoction. Soak in 5 liters of water 1 kg of shag, stand for a day, boil for half an hour. Then pour 500 ml of broth, dilute with 10 liters of water and treat the plant.
Attention! Pest control chemicals on rosemary cannot be used if you plan to consume spice in food.
Among the diseases it is worth highlighting downy mildew. This is a fungal disease, manifested by white spots on the leaves. It occurs due to strong soil moisture. If the plant becomes sick, it is treated with a fungicide, for example, Fitoverm.
The dates of germination and harvest of rosemary
Rosemary blooms in spring, then its flowers are picked. From them, you can get seeds for further reproduction.
During this period, spice branches are cut, which are during flowering, especially saturated with essential oils and beneficial elements.
Cut shoots can be used immediately or dried for future use. Dry them in the fresh airlaying out in a shaded place. When the branches dry well, they are crushed and stored in hermetically sealed glass jars. Shelf life is 3 years.
As always, problems arise where care has been misplaced. Rosemary was poured, and its leaves turned yellow, and there not far before the appearance of powdery mildew.
Moisturized the plant moisture - it discards the leaves. Low humidity can cause spider mite infection.
Lack of light and nutrients affect the condition of the shoots: they weaken and are strongly elongated. Restore proper care, and all these problems will not affect you.
Essential oil extracted from rosemary is used in the manufacture of medicines against migraines and diabetes. The plant also helps in the treatment of diseases of the liver, kidneys and gastrointestinal tract.
Rosemary flavor is appreciated in cookinghaving a pleasant coniferous smell. It is added to meat and fish dishes, desserts decorate them. Drinks containing rosemary have a tonic taste and well replenish strength.
The spice grown in the house cleans its atmosphere and fills it with soothing vibes.