Balsam indoor: photo, video, reproduction, planting and care
General Description of Balsam Plant
Balsam was introduced to Europe, and then to Russia at the end of the XVIII century and immediately gained great popularity. The family to which this indoor flower belongs includes more than 500 varieties. The homeland of these plants is South America, Africa and India. Here, in the conditions of subtropics, balsamins receive a sufficient amount of moisture and sunlight.
However, no more than 8 species of these plants can live at home. At the same time, 2 natural varieties of balsam, differing in white and red colors, were widely used. In addition, under artificial conditions, about 200 varieties of these plants were bred, whose color diversity is great.
Indoor flower balsam is small in size. It grows in the form of a small bush, reaching no more than 60 cm in height. The balsam bush has a spherical shape. The stems of the plant are thick and juicy. They are fragile and brittle.
In a temperate climate, only 8 species can grow. And in the culture bred 15.
The plant produces many leaves, characterized by an elongated rounded shape. The length of the leaves does not exceed 7 cm. In some varieties of this plant, the leaves may have a heart shape. Their color can vary from light to saturated dark green. On the edge of the leaves there are many cloves. A small spike may be present at the ends. Streaks are clearly visible on the leaves, distinguished by a darker shade.
The root system of balsam differs in the uroliform form. She is not too well developed. With proper care, flowering plants are observed almost throughout the year. Each flower has 5 petals. They can have bizarre shapes, hang freely, or be fused in pairs. Flowers can grow both individually and be collected in large inflorescences.
There are varieties of balsam giving terry and semi-double flowers. In addition, there are plants on which the flowers are two-tone. Different varieties may vary in the shape of the buds. They can be camelliform, cloves, fringed. There are plants whose buds resemble roses. After the flowering period ends, the petals fall and the formation of green fruits occurs, which then dry out. The fruits contain from 3 to 5 seeds.
Popular varieties and types of balsam
There are many varieties of this indoor flower. They can be annual or perennial. The fundamental difference between the varieties is the color of the buds and the splendor of flowering.
Waller - This is a variety of balsam, which served as the basis for the development of many other hybrids. It grows up to 50 cm in height. During flowering, he gives large flowers of pink and white.
New Guinean Balsam.
New Guinea Balsam different green leaves with bright yellow veins. The plant gives large flowers of bright colors. This variety can be grown in open ground.
Orchid Balsam has a thick red stalk, characterized by a dark pink color. The leaves are large. Their veins are also dark pink, the surface is velvety. The flowers are deformed. They have the shape of shoes.
Strawberries with cream - (terry grade of balsam.
Strawberries with cream - Indoor terry grade of Balsamina. It is characterized by flowers of red and white color up to 4 cm in diameter. Very effective variety with a lush crown and long flowering even with a lack of lighting.
Salmon Chiffon differs in long flowering, during which the plant gives large bright buds. Petals have a rough surface. This variety is whimsical.
Balsam Salmon Chiffon (salmon chiffon).
Kandy Is a relatively recently bred variety. It is distinguished by the presence of dark oblong leaves. The plant blooms profusely. The buds are dense, have high pedicels. The petals are velvety and soft to the touch. Flowers may have a different color.
Cutie - This is a beautiful small bush. He produces a large number of small leaves, gives pink, red and white flowers. It can bloom for a whole year.
The universal varietal mixture blooms beautifully in interiors all year round and in flowerbeds in summer.
Tom Thumb - A beautiful and abundantly flowering bush of compact size with branched stems and bright, double large flowers. It can be grown as an indoor flower or in open ground. On one bush flowers of white, red and pink color can be presented. This variety loves sunny places, but is able to grow and bloom in partial shade and even in the shade, where its branches and flowers will be smaller. The flower should be watered abundantly, as it does not tolerate drying out of the soil. To make the bush more branched, you need to pinch its tops. Indoor Balsam can grow in a cramped pot. In open ground, the size of the flower will undoubtedly be large.
Peters - this species is distinguished by the color of the foliage - it has a bronze tint. Blooms profusely with bright red flowers.
How to care for balsam
Impatiens are not very demanding and fairly easy-to-care plants, so they are planted with pleasure by beginner growers. These flowering plants are thermophilic, photophilous (but do not tolerate direct sunlight), do not like drafts.
For example, Waller balsam (Impatiens walleriana), a species that is used for home breeding, can be called universal. They quite easily tolerate short-term drying of the soil, quickly recover immediately after irrigation. But they do not like overheating and waterlogging.
Location and lighting
This rather unpretentious plant feels great both on the windowsill, and in those places where there is enough diffused light. This allows you to use a flowering plant as an elegant element of decor.
A pot with balsam is often placed on the east or west side, but even on the north window the light develops well and blooms. If he lives on the south window, you need to consider protection from the sun's rays entering the bush.
Elegant New Guinea hybrid varieties (New Guinea) need more intense lighting.
Important: in the hot period, it is imperative to protect the under-touch from the direct sun, shade or temporarily rearrange it to another place. But in winter, for continuous flowering, she needs “sunbathing”.
Balsam is comfortable in the temperature range from 180 to 250. If the humidity in the room is high, then it also tolerates higher temperatures.
In winter, with sufficient lighting and proper watering, the plant can be indoors with temperatures up to +120. With prolonged hypothermia, the light can reset the leaves.
The most comfortable are indoor types of balsam in rooms with moderate humidity (40-50%). In a warm room with high humidity, these flowers also develop well and bloom well.
But a long stay in a dry environment can cause the tips of the leaves to turn yellow, and the buds and flowers will fall off.
Humidity can be increased by placing a pot with a touch on wet expanded clay or placing a container of clean water next to the balsam.
Impatiens leaves are recommended to periodically be rinsed or sprayed with pure warm water (250). It is important to ensure that water droplets do not fall on flowers that have already blossomed.
No wonder the people call balsam Vanka wet - this is a moisture-loving plant, but it is very important to maintain water balance.
On the stems of balsam and along the edges of the leaves droplets of a sweetish liquid stand out - so the plant independently protects itself from excess moisture.
Soil in a pot with a touchy should always be wet. However, the amount of water must be selected so that it does not stagnate and does not fill the container (pan) under the pot. In winter, the plant is watered less intensely.
From spring to autumn, it is necessary to regularly feed balsam (approximately once every 14 days) with liquid complex fertilizers intended for flowering plants. These nutrient mixtures are sold in flower shops.
In the cold period, feeding begins only after the formation of flower buds.
With insufficient nutrition, the stems quickly lengthen, the leaves turn pale, become smaller.
Transplant and pruning
It is necessary to transplant this indoor plant annually. The best time is spring.
Balsam indoor is not very picky about the soil. For this, plants often use a loose mixture, which is prepared from sheet soil, peat, sand, taken in the ratio2:1:1. You can add a little charcoal to the mixture.
For the now popular New Guinea varieties, soil is prepared from equal parts of turf, nutrient humus, compost, baking powder (perlite).
The flower pot for balsam should correspond to the size of its rhizome. In spacious containers, the plant, as a rule, does not bloom.
Propagation of balsam
Indoor balsam is propagated without any problems by both seeds and cuttings.
- Seeds After blooming, the touches produce green fruits that look like boxes. A ripened dry box “explodes” from touch, firing small grains. They are sown in a mixture of peat with perlite to a depth of about 0.7-0.9 centimeters. After sowing, the soil must be moistened. The container with seeds must be “insulated” by creating a zone with a temperature of about 25 °. To do this, just cover it with a transparent plastic bag. Seedlings should “hatch” in 10-12 days. When a single leaf forms in the seedling, it is transplanted into a clean pot. Impatiens blooms 3-4 months after sowing.
- Cuttings. Propagate the plant with stem and apical cuttings. This method is especially relevant for the propagation of elegant terry balsamins. The top of the handle (about 6-7 centimeters) is carefully cut with a sharp knife or scalpel. There should be several internodes on the handle. The lower leaves are removed.The prepared cuttings are planted in a nutrient substrate, which is prepared from vermiculite, peat and perlite (in equal parts). After this, it is necessary to ram the soil around the handle, pour warm water in which to dissolve a little potassium permanganate. A few days later, roots will form. Plants obtained from spring cuttings bloom in summer. In order for the plant to bloom in winter, the stalk is planted in July-August.
Balsam growth rate
Balsam acts as fast growing plantif, in caring for it, strictly adhere to the agrotechnics of flower cultivation: observe the temperature and humidity conditions, transplant annually in larger containers, water in a timely manner, apply fertilizers, etc.
The determining role in the growth rate of a pet is played by its appearance. Recently, breeders have developed dwarf plant forms up to 15 cm high, as well as low-growing ampelous varieties that grow in the horizontal direction up to 40-60 cm.
Traditional flower forms, such as Waller's balsam, reach 60–80 cm in height and already 90–100 days after the emergence of seedlings please the eye with their friendly flowering.
The balsamic family combines both perennials and annualswhose life cycle lasts for one year.
Many florists prefer to grow in their annual culture even recognized long-livers of the genus Impatiens (Impatiens), planting them in separate pots and placing them on flower beds, balconies, open terraces or roofs of houses. If it is supposed to cultivate a touchy plant as a perennial, then each spring it is pruned.
One of the equally important care and growing procedures is reproduction and planting (transplantation), about which our experts have prepared interesting materials.
Soil and fertilizers
Balsam is not very demanding on the composition of the soil, but it is better if the soil is characterized by low acidity. To prepare the soil mixture, which will include all the necessary substances for the plant, it is necessary to mix the leaf and turf soil, as well as sand and humus. These components should be taken in equal proportions. You can also add some peat to the mixture.
Periodically, you need to make mineral fertilizers, ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate. Feeding is recommended in spring and autumn. It is especially important to apply fertilizer during the period of abundant flowering. You need to feed 2-3 times a month.
Pruning room balm
Balsam is regularly trimmed throughout its life. If you grow a Twinkle from a seed, then, as soon as the seven-leaf leaves appear, pinch the top of the central shoot. Then the side shoots begin to develop, and the balsam is formed by a beautiful bush.
If you want to form a flower in the form of a tree, wait until the stalk of a young plant is zeleben. Then carefully cut all the lower leaves, and pinch the main shoot. Sprinkle the places of cuts with crushed charcoal. Over time, form lateral shoots. After trimming, feed the plant with fertilizers (urea, vermicompost).
In early spring of any age, balsam should be pruned. Annual growth should be shortened by half. By the way, the crown of the Twinkle should be formed throughout the entire period of its growing season, namely, when the young shoots reach the desired length, pinch the top growth point. This stimulates the formation of new lateral stems, on which bright buds and beautiful flowers will soon appear.
The need to trim balsam is associated with improving the appearance of the bush.
All year follow the appearance of Balsam. The overgrown and weakened shoots, wilted flowers and leaves are removed, the diseased and decorative parts of the plant are cut off. It is necessary to maintain a decorative look of a flower constantly. In order for Balzamin to have a uniform beautiful crown, the pot with the plant must be periodically rotated, exposing the flower to the sun from different sides. In addition, constantly looking closely at the flower, you will not miss the onset of the disease or the attack of parasites.
Choosing a Pot for Indoor Balsam
For growing balsam, the size of the pot is important. The flower loves a small pot in which the root system has braided the entire lump - this is an indispensable condition for abundant flowering of the plant. If you put the Light in a spacious pot (which turned out to be at home), then he will spend all his strength on building up the root system. So laid down by nature - the roots of Balsam should completely braid a lump of soil, only then it can grow and form buds. That is, in a large pot you will wait longer for flowering. In addition, excess soil during frequent watering will turn sour, which will lead to root disease.
In addition to size, drainage holes at the bottom of the pot and drainage itself are important, in which, in addition to expanded clay or pebbles, pieces of charcoal or activated carbon should be added to prevent diseases. At the end of the kit, you should purchase a deep pan so that excess water from it does not spill onto the windowsill.
Rest period: winter balsam care
How to keep Balsamin until next year? In the usual sense, Balzamin does not have a rest period. For several winter months, he is forced to rest from the lush flowering, as he does not have enough light for full flowering.At this time, it is necessary to transfer the flower to a cooler room (16 - 18 gr.). The temperature is 10 gr. is critical for Balzamin.
In winter, you need to protect the plant from strong drafts.
Watering should be reduced, but just like in summer, you need to water it when the topsoil dries to a depth of 1 cm. Do not overdry the soil, as this can lead to a weakening and delayed flower development. If the room is too dry and hot, you need to spray the air around the flower without getting a jet on the buds. Feeding is better not to carry out.
If you arrange additional artificial lighting for a flower with a phytolamp or a fluorescent lamp, then keep other care points necessary for the flower - heat, water, and fertilize with liquid fertilizers once a month in low concentration. Then the light will delight you with its flowering all year round.
Features of winter care
How is balsam wintering? How to keep balsam at home in winter? Consider the features of winter care at home.
How often to water a flower?
Fall and winter unlike the summer period, the irrigation intensity must be reduced, waiting for the substrate to dry to a depth of 1 cm.However, it is impossible to dry the soil, since this is fraught with weak flowering and even falling buds, as well as slow growth and development of balsam.
Do I need to spray the plant?
In the cold season it is necessary to spray the undercuts with extreme caution, preventing the ingress of water onto the opened buds. The need for spraying is due to severe dry air and high room temperature - more than 22-25 ºС.
To increase the humidity of indoor air, place it next to the flower of water containers or install the pot in plastic pallets filled with moist expanded clay, peat or moss.
Balsamine has no rest period.
He can please flower growers with his luxurious buds all year round, including in winter, but only with additional artificial lighting.
At low light intensity it develops poorly, leaves stretch, lose their usual color and fall off.
Which ultimately can lead to a complete loss of the aesthetic appeal of the plant.
In winter, it is best to contain balsam on the lower limits of the temperature norm - 16–18 ºС, not allowing critical values –– below 10 ºС.
Usually, feeding during the cold season is not required, however if the plant has blossomed in all its glory, then it will be useful to use complex fertilizers in low concentrations, the application of which is timed to watering.
Choosing a pet for a home greenhouse, you should not pass by balsam. Unlike its name - “touchy” - the plant is remarkable for its unpretentious unpretentiousness, and its unsurpassed beauty will not stop indifferent even the most sophisticated floral “gourmet”.
Propagation of balsam
The balsam plant propagates in two ways: by seeds and by cuttings. Proper planting and care contribute to lush flowering in the first year of life.
Cuttings take root well in water, take root. It is more difficult to propagate by seeds, the flowering of such a plant begins after 4 months.
Landing can be carried out all year round. The order of reproduction is presented in the sequence:
- Before planting, the seeds are soaked in a weak solution of potassium permanganate for 10 minutes.
- The soil for them is mixed from a part of perlite and two parts of peat.
- Deepen the seeds by 7 cm and moisten the soil, close the pot with a film so that the temperature under it is 20-25 degrees.
- Sprouts appear after 8-10 days.
- So that the soil is not too wet, it must be aired periodically.
- After the seedlings reach a height of 1.5-2 cm, it must be dived.
- You can distribute seedlings in pots when she has at least one full leaf.
The sequence is important to observe, so as not to provoke the death of new sprouts.
Propagation by cuttings
This is a more popular breeding method. In this case, all species characteristics are preserved. This method is especially good for terry varieties of balsam. The breeding order is proposed as follows:
- In spring or summer, the top of the shoot is cut to a length of 7 cm. 2-3 internodes should be present on the handle. Lower leaflets can be removed.
- Place the shank in a bowl of water and wait for the roots to appear.
- The substrate for planting is taken the same.
- After the appearance of the roots, they are planted in pots, which must be covered with something, for example, a jar.
- Seedlings take root in 2 weeks, and after 2-3 months, the bush begins to bloom.
Experienced flower growers plant cuttings directly into the ground, pre-treating them with a drug to accelerate the growth of the root system. The stem is also well rooted if greenhouse conditions are created for it.
Diseases of balsam and their treatment
Balsam, like all indoor plants, is susceptible to various diseases - viral and fungal. The most common are:
1. Mosaic - spotted oppression viruses. The disease is noticeable on the deformed leaves of the plant, yellow spots on them, a withering stalk and stunted flower growth. Insect pests infect the plant. You can eliminate the disease with the help of insecticides.
2. Gray rot is a fungal infection. Its appearance is visible by brown spots on the leaves, white bloom and sluggish stems. Infection occurs with improper care of the plant.
The treatment is carried out with antifungal agents - fungicides and proper care of the bush. Usually the fungus affects the soil, so it is better to transplant the bush into a new clean soil.
3. Bronze is a viral disease that cannot be treated. The disease can be seen by fading leaves and stems, deformation of the leaves, the formation of holes of different sizes on them.
Bacteriosis is a very dangerous disease, so the bush needs to be destroyed immediately so as not to infect other plants.
To prevent infection, it is often necessary to ventilate the room.
4. Powdery mildew - fungal infection, often develops in the soil of indoor plants. The disease is noticeable by the wilting of the bush, the appearance of a whitish-brown coating on the leaves and twisting them into tubes.
Pay attention to this material - Unpretentious and shade-loving indoor plants.
Treatment with solutions of copper sulfate, soapy solution, soda ash helps. It is required to feed the bush with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers.
These are almost all balsamic diseases that need to be quickly eliminated so that the bush does not suffer and the disease does not transfer to other plants.
When balsam is grown, there may be other problems. The most common are:
- Why do balsamins drop buds? This situation occurs with poor care of it, when the room has dry air and insufficient watering, it is too cold and dark, and also when the bush is overfed with fertilizers.
- Why do balsamins turn yellow leaves? This is due to moisture deficiency or sunburn, if the pot stands under its direct rays. In winter, leaves may turn yellow due to the low temperature in the room.
- Pests attacking the bush - whitefly and spider mite, appear with excessive dryness in the room and in the heat, if not ventilated. You should properly care for the plant.
A beautiful and easy-to-care balsam is able to delight you with its bright and delicate flowers all year round, if it is properly looked after and treated for diseases in time.