Growing pomegranate from seed at home is easy
This deciduous subtropical plant in the culture rarely reaches two meters in height. In the wild, it can grow up to six meters. In indoor cultivation cultivation, its growth is unlikely to exceed 80-100 cm, but its low growth will not affect the fruiting of the tree.
Pomegranate in summer
By the way. Dwarf pomegranate is popular, along with lemons, oranges, other citrus fruits, and home-grown pineapple and coffee tree cultivations.
The fruit of the plant is a berry, which consists of 6-12 sections, arranged in two rows and filled with seeds in an amount of more than a thousand. It is from these seeds that pomegranate is grown.
Berry with seeds
By the way. Pomegranate begins to bear fruit in the garden from the age of three, and with careful care it can continue bearing fruit for up to forty years. Dwarf pomegranate is able to bear fruit in its second year, but this will last a maximum of seven years. And there is a high probability that the fruits will not appear at all.
Nevertheless, the cultivation of any indoor exotica, which is impossible, due to inconsistency of climatic conditions, to have in the garden in a summer house near Moscow, is an exciting occupation.
Useful properties of homemade pomegranate
In addition to its decorative appearance and valuable fruits, home-made pomegranate tree has a number of properties that enrich the composition and air quality of the room in which it is located. Namely, it serves as a natural moisturizer, eliminates pathogenic microorganisms, carbon dioxide, at the same time saturating the environment with oxygen. Pomegranate growing in the working room increases stress resistance, working capacity, calms the nervous system.
How to grow pomegranate at home
How to grow pomegranate from seed? As seeds, you can use fresh seeds of ripe, healthy and beautiful pomegranate. You should be aware that pomegranates sold in stores and markets are hybrids, so the fruits of homemade pomegranate grown from their seeds will not preserve the taste of the parent variety, although the decorativeness of the plant can be beyond praise.
It is best if you get the ripe and tasty fruit of pomegranate. Bones are extracted from the fetus and the pulp is cleaned. The color of the seeds should be creamy, and they should be hard to the touch - soft and greenish seeds are unsuitable for cultivation. Soak the bones for 12 hours in water with the addition of two to three drops of Zircon or Epin to stimulate the germination process. The solution should not cover the seeds completely - they, in addition to moisture, need oxygen.
How to plant pomegranate
Pomegranate cultivation is carried out in a loose substrate, consisting of fertile soil, peat and sand. For this purpose, you can purchase universal soil for flower plants in the store - pomegranate is unpretentious to the composition of the soil.
Prepared and dried pomegranate seeds are buried in a substrate 1-1.5 cm, lightly watered, cover the container with polyethylene or glass and placed in a place well lit by the sun. If pomegranate planting occurs at the end of winter or the beginning of spring, then in a couple of weeks you can expect emergence of seedlings, and seeds planted at other times of the year can sit in the ground for several months.
How to care for pomegranate seedlings
Growing pomegranate at home requires creating optimal comfort for it. The conditions for growing pomegranate include maintaining the room temperature within 25 ºC, regular ventilation and spraying the substrate with warm water.
When the first true leaves form at the seedlings, seedlings of seedlings, shortening the root by a third, in small separate pots with nutrient soil and with a drainage layer under it. Place the pomegranate on the lightest window sill - it needs to be in direct sunlight for at least 2 hours a day. For sprouts that have risen in the winter, you will have to arrange additional lighting.
After three pairs of leaves form on the seedlings, pinch them to stimulate the growth of pomegranate with two tops. When three pairs of leaves are formed on each shoot, pinch them so that the pomegranate grows in a lush tree.
Maintain the temperature in the room in which the young pomegranate grows, within 20 ºC, providing it with regular ventilation. In summer, homemade pomegranate is better to bring to the balcony or terrace, because the plant is very fond of fresh air and sunlight. Ten months after the emergence of seedlings, you can see the flowering of pomegranate.
In the fall, the tree will drop leaves and enter dormancy. You can, of course, make it grow in the winter, but the tree quickly gets tired and exhausted - everyone needs rest, and pomegranate is no exception. Transfer the pomegranate to a room with a temperature of 10-12 ºC, stop feeding, reduce watering to the required minimum and let the plant rest for a month or two. After a period of rest, leaves will again appear on the pomegranate, and it will become more beautiful than before.
Transplanting a seedling into a larger pot
Seedlings need to be planted in separate pots after the appearance of two or three true leaves. Choose the strongest and most healthy plants. The pot for the first planting should not be large, a diameter of 7-10 cm is sufficient.
The transplantation of the pomegranate plant is not well tolerated; usually they are transshipped with a lump of earth.
Transplanting seedlings is carried out in the following order:
- Prepare a pot with a diameter of 2-3 cm larger than the previous one.
- At the bottom of the pot is placed a drainage layer of 1-2 cm, then the soil to half.
- Seedlings are carefully removed with a spoon or spatula along with the ground near the roots.
Pomegranate seedlings taken out along with a lump of land
- Place the plant on the ground in the center of the new pot and fill the free space on the sides with soil at the level of an earthen coma. No need to deepen - they will not bloom
Each seedling is planted in the center of a separate pot.
- Watered with warm water and put in a sunny place.
In the first three years, plants are transplanted every year, gradually increasing the size of the pot. A transplant is carried out in the spring with swelling of the kidneys. Trees older than three years are replanted every three years or as needed. A five-liter pot is enough for an adult indoor plant. Too large a pot can cause flowering to cease.
It should be noted that pomegranate grows better and blooms in a slightly cramped pot.
In order to qualitatively germinate pomegranate from the stone at home, it must be regularly fed. Fertilizers contribute to the better development of the tree, favorably affect its root system and stimulate the growth of shoots.
As a top dressing, you can choose mineral and organic compounds, using them together or alternately alternating. Optimal use of nitrogen-phosphorus fertilizers. They are best suited for feeding flowering indoor plants.
Pomegranate must be fertilized every two weeks, from the end of winter to the end of autumn. For the period of rest, when the foliage falls from the tree, they stop feeding the plant. In the new season, starting to make nutrients should not be immediately in full, but gradually increasing the amount of fertilizer to the desired level. Also gradually and stop using fertilizing before the rest period.
When using fertilizers, you should carefully study the instructions from the manufacturer, since an excess of nutrients can cause the plant more harm than its lack.
If you properly care for the pomegranate tree, then the first flowers may already appear a year after planting. Homemade pomegranates can bloom several times a year and bear fruit. But the first 2-3 years, the flowers need to be removed. Harvest can only be obtained when the tree is strong.
The culture forms 2 types of flowers - with a long and short pestle. Fruits are formed from flowers with a long pestle. But for this, pollination must occur. The procedure can be carried out independently using a cotton swab. Hybrid varieties already have the ability to self-pollinate. The percentage of self-pollination varies between 5-20%.
At the end of autumn, pomegranate begins to drop leaves, which indicates the onset of a dormant period.
In order for the plant to have forces for active growth in spring, it needs to organize the right conditions:
- Transfer to a cool room with a temperature of about + 7 ° C.
- Water only when the topsoil is completely dry, on average 2 times a month or less.
- Do not spray the plant.
- Do not feed until February.
Sometimes a grenade is organized a warm winter and it continues to grow. But such conditions will affect the further development of the tree and its fruiting. Therefore, a dormant grenade period is necessary.
Pomegranate can be formed in the form of a compact tree with a low stem and 4 or 5 skeletal branches, as well as in the form of a bush with 3 or 4 skeletal branches. As the bush grows on the formed skeletal branches, 4 or 5 second-order branches must be laid, and then third-order branches can be formed on them if desired. Root shoots, as well as fat and excess stems and branches must be removed. Over time, the old branches are cut out because they will not be able to produce a crop. The fruiting of the tree is observed on the shoots of the current year.
If the aphid has settled on a bush, then a two-day infusion of tobacco is used to get rid of it (1 gram of hot water 40 grams). Before spraying, the finished infusion must be mixed with water in a ratio of 1: 2, and with 4 grams of laundry soap, which is pre-ground on a grater. To destroy spider mites, whiteflies and scutes, use onion or garlic infusion. To prepare it, it is necessary to combine 1 liter of water and 20 grams of husk, after 5 days the infusion will be ready, it will only be filtered. If the codling moth has settled on a bush, then to get rid of it, it is necessary to remove all the affected fruits, both those that have fallen and those that are hanging on the branches.
To protect the tree from harmful insects, you can use chemicals. To exterminate mealybugs, the bush is sprayed three times with Mospilan, Confidor or Actara, while the procedures are carried out with an interval of 5-6 days. And you can cope with spider mites with acaricidal drugs, for example, Fitoverm or Aktellik.
If the bush is affected by cancer of the branches or roots, then it exhibits cracking of the bark and the formation of wounds with spongy bloating, while the branches and stems begin to dry. If a tree is very affected, then it dries completely. As soon as the first symptoms of the disease are noticed, all wounds must be cleaned to a healthy tissue, after which they are sprayed with a solution of copper sulfate and treated with garden var. In the case when almost the entire surface of the tree is covered with such areas, it is recommended to cut it to a stump, perhaps this will help save it. The most common causes of pomegranate damage by such diseases are mechanical damage to wood or bark.
What to do if it does not take root?
Basically pomegranate tree survives without problems after planting. However, in the case of an improperly selected location, improper soil composition, the presence of cold air or drafts, the plant may begin to wither. In this case, you need to try to take into account all the rules and subtleties when growing a fetus. If necessary, change the place or transfer to another soil.
So, to grow a tree and wait for pomegranates is not difficult both at home and in the open ground. It is only important to correctly follow the recommendations for care, and then the plant will be sprawling, strong, with beautiful flowers, due to which it will fit into any design.
Warming the plant for the winter is the most important stage in growing a pomegranate tree. Since at a temperature below - 10 ° С the thermophilic tree begins to freeze, immediately after harvesting it begins to be prepared for wintering.
- The lower branches of the pomegranate are tilted close to the ground and tied to pegs so that they do not straighten.
- Leaves and young shoots, important for fruiting, are treated with Bordeaux fluid, and a dense layer of fertile soil is poured around the trunk and mulch the soil with a layer of up to 15 cm.
- Around the trunk lay spruce branches, trying to close the branches of pomegranate as much as possible.
To remove winter shelter with the onset of spring is not necessary immediately, but only after the establishment of a stable positive temperature. After removing the spruce branches, the pomegranates are carefully treated with fungicides to prevent the development of fungus on the surface of the tree and in the soil near the trunk.
Is it possible to get fruits at home and how to do it
If you grow pomegranate from seed, then the probability of preserving all the qualities of the mother tree in it is very low. If the seed was taken from an ordinary store fruit, then the tree can bear fruit only in the 7-8 year of life. To get the full fruits as early as possible, it is recommended to be vaccinated. There are many methods for grafting a tree. The most popular is copulation. Its essence lies in the fact that on the stock and scion make the same oblique cut and connect them to grow together.
- Moisten the stock with a clean cloth. Make an oblique slice with a sharp knife at an angle of about 25 degrees.
- On the handle, make the same cut, retreating 1 cm under the lower kidney.
- Connect the stock and scion so that the slices match.
- Wrap the joint with tape or elastic tape. Connecting parts should not be displaced.
- Grease the stalk from above with garden var.
The vaccine is successful if fusion occurs and the kidneys begin to grow. Such a tree will begin to bear fruit in 3-4 years.
Fruiting pomegranate begins in the fall, and the crop is usually harvested in October. To understand that the fruits are ripe is quite simple - grenades acquire a uniformly red or yellowish pink color, depending on the variety. At this point, they must be removed from the branches, as the ripe fruits may crack or fall to the ground and rot.
Pomegranate fruits are stored for a long time, and they need to be kept at a temperature of about 2 degrees with good ventilation. You can not leave pomegranates in the winter on an open balcony or veranda at low temperatures, from this the fruits will rot.
Pomegranate propagation by cuttings
Pomegranate, extracted from the cuttings, gives fruits much earlier than a tree obtained from seeds. The most common way to breed pomegranate is as follows:
- thin, slightly lignified cuttings having 4 internodes are cut from annual shoots to a length of 10-15 cm;
- pretreated in a stimulator, the branches are planted in a moistened earthen substrate with vermiculite and sand with a deepening of 2 internodes;
- hothouse conditions are organized: a greenhouse, subsoil heating to 23-25 ºС, regular ventilation.
The appearance of the processes occurs after about a month, as will be indicated by the presence of young kidneys. Since the pomegranate is rather reluctant to take root, for the guaranteed result, it is recommended to plant several cuttings simultaneously.
An alternative way to plant a tree is to root shoots in water. For this method, pomegranate cuttings are cut off 5 cm long, then placed in sterile water and placed in a secluded place, protected from direct sunlight and draft. The most favorable time for root sprouting in this way is late spring, the beginning of summer.
A rare occurrence in nature is 2.5-5 meters high with small pinkish inflorescences and unsweetened fruits.
A universally cultivated species with orange-red flowers, fruits of a rich taste. There are many forms of decorative pomegranates of this species, having flowers of white, yellow, red-white shades.
Dwarf Pomegranate (Nana)
Hybrid pomegranate, isolated in a separate form. It blooms and bears fruit most of the year, the fruits are edible, no more than 5 cm in size.In turn, thanks to numerous breeders, it gave rise to more than 500 species of the species, such as:
– Uzbekistan. The variety is characterized by a sweet-sour taste of fruits, the maximum height of the tree is 2 meters;
– Ruby. It has flowers of a rich ruby hue, pomegranates 6-8 cm in size;
– Carthage. It is distinguished by juicy sour fruits, it is also typical for it to completely fall off the leaves during the dormant period;
– Shah-nar. Grenades of this type are pear-shaped, are considered the most delicious;
– Baby. A tree half a meter tall with miniature fruits with a diameter of 3 cm.
Common pomegranate is a houseplant with an unpretentious character. But if you make mistakes in leaving, then the tree is naughty, problems arise with it. Florists are faced with such situations:
- Yellowing leaves. So the plant reacts to hot conditions. Transfer the pomegranate to your balcony or terrace. If it’s winter outside, or if you don’t have a balcony, spray the leaves with cool water more often. And do not forget to regularly air the room.
- Brown spots appear on yellowing leaves. A similar phenomenon occurs due to lack of watering. Normalize hydration and the plant will recover.
- Leaves fall. If leaf fall occurs in autumn, then do not panic, because in this way the tree is preparing for hibernation. If the crown thins in spring or summer, it means that the culture suffers from heat and lack of moisture.
- Leaves dry. This is due to the lack of regular watering. But also this phenomenon speaks of rotting of roots. Sniff the soil, if you smell mold, then immediately transplant the tree into a new substrate. During the event, remove all damaged and rotten roots, and sprinkle the places of cuts with crushed charcoal.
Follow crop cultivation guidelines and provide room pomegranate with proper home care. The tree is sure to thank quick growth, decorative appearance, tasty and healthy fruits. And no problems will arise with him.
Pomegranate frost resistance
To ripen pomegranate fruits you need a hot, dry climate with warm long summers and short mild winters. Some winter-hardy varieties of pomegranate can safely exist with a short-term decrease in air temperature to -170C. But even these trees in such climatic conditions should be sheltered for the winter. With further intensification of frost, the ground part and then the root system of the tree freeze out.
When to plant pomegranate
Pomegranate is a southern thermophilic plant. The process of preparing seedlings can be carried out throughout the year. But their landing in open ground can only begin when the earth warms up to + 120С at a depth of 10 cm. Typically, such conditions occur in late May. In autumn, planting pomegranates is not recommended, since the plant does not have time to get stronger before the start of the cold season.
After planting in open ground under optimal conditions, the pomegranate will bloom for 2-3 years, and will produce fruit in the fourth.
Where to plant pomegranate on the site
To grow pomegranate, you can use any type of soil - sandy, loamy, rocky soil. The best are moist rich lands with an acidity of 5.5-7.0.
When planting a pomegranate, it is advisable to organize drainage so that the water does not stagnate at the roots. You can place the tree in the soil with an alkaline environment, but you need to enrich the soil with mineral and organic fertilizers.
When choosing a site to grow pomegranates, preference should be given to a flat place on the southwest side without bias and drafts.
How to plant pomegranate
Planting pomegranate in the garden is similar to the technique of other fruit trees. But it has its own characteristics. In this case, you need to know how to plant pomegranate seedlings correctly and prepare cuttings for this.
If several plants are planned to be grown on the site, then the distance between them should be maintained 1.7-2.2 m, and between the rows - up to 2-3 m.
What to do if the pomegranate does not bloom or does not set fruit
If your pomegranate is more than three years old, and it has never bloomed or pleased with the fruits, then you need to revise the conditions of detention and care methods Check if you are doing everything right:
- The average daily temperature is favorable for budding - 16 ... 18 ° C.
- There will be no flowers and fruits, if the pomegranate is in the shade, there is not enough sun for it.
- Irregular watering and dry soil lead to crop failure.
- With excess moisture, the plant actively builds up shoots and leaves to the detriment of fruiting. The same thing happens when applying nitrogen fertilizers. Potassium and phosphorus should prevail in top dressing. Look at the composition of the mixtures and concentrates that you buy.
- The 1-2-year-old shoots 10–40 cm long are most prolific; the excess clippings interfere with their formation.
Pomegranate is not only a juicy, tasty fruit. This is a beautifully flowering tree that can easily be grown in your own garden or at home. Against the background of a flowering tree, very beautiful photos are obtained. In addition, you will enjoy not only a beautiful flowering plant, but also delicious fruits.
It is also worth noting the beneficial qualities of the fruit. They are rich in vitamins and minerals, increase blood pressure, hemoglobin. This berry is very useful for children.