Orchid dendrobium phalaenopsis: flower description, home care, reproduction methods
Dendrobium phalaenopsis forms long fusiform pseudobulbs, at the top of which a peduncle is formed.
The life span of a pseudobulb is several years, but after the formation of the peduncle its growth stops, and a new growth point appears at its base. This type of growth is called sympodial.
On a pseudobulb are leathery leavesthat can last for several years, especially at the top, or fall off after flowering.
The arrows in the photo show the pseudobulbs of the dendrobium lindleyi.
Flower stalk their tops of pseudobulb grow and carries up to 40 flowers with a diameter of 3-5 cmpurple, lilac, white, pink or purple. In shape, they resemble Phalaenopsis flowers.
Features and specifications
In nature, this species can be found in northern Australia and Papua New Guinea, where it grows on trees and stones. Due to high air temperatures and humidity, as well as a huge habitat, the shape and appearance of the plant is changing.
Indoor variety dendrofalenopsis can reach 120 cm in height. This orchid has a sympodial form of growth: spindle-shaped pseudobulbs grow from the rhizome, which store the necessary nutrients and water. Peduncles form on their upper part, after which pseudobulbs stop growing, and new growth sites form at their base. Peduncles can have up to 40 flowers, formed from eight petals, their diameter can be from 3 to 7 cm.The flowering is plentiful, lasts several months, the color scheme varies from snow-white to pink, purple and deep purple.
On the stem are from 2 to 15 dense elongated leaves with a recess in the middle. Below they are smaller, quickly fall off, and in the upper part are larger and can grow for 2-3 years. The color of the leaf blades is dark green.
Dendrobium phalaenopsis in nature: habitat, distribution area
This is a view naturally grows in northern Australia and Papua New Guinea. Dendrobium phalaenopsis can grow epiphytically (on trees) or lithophytic (on stones), rising to a height of 400 m above sea level. In habitats throughout the year keep relatively high temperatures and humidity. Moreover, due to the large area of distribution, the appearance of plants varies greatly.
Distinguishing distinctive features is difficult, because plant height, number of leaves on pseudobulbs, their life span and color of flowers can vary greatly. All plants are characterized by leathery dark green leaves, located mainly in the upper part of the pseudobulb.
The number of leaves varies from 3 to 15, depending on the size of the pseudobulbs. At the same time, they grow on the whole stem, so Dendrobium phalaenopsis is often called "tree orchids" (photo you can see below).
The subtleties of classification
It is interesting that this species became widely known under the name, which is actually a synonym for the real name. This orchid species was first discovered in 1852 and was named Dendrobium bigibbum, but thirty years later (in 1880), another researcher also discovered a plant of this species in a different region and, not knowing about the previous discovery, called it Dendrobium phalaenopsis (Dendrobium phalaenopsis).
On a note! The term Dendrobium phalaenopsis has now become the anonymous name of a huge group of hybrids, similar in external structure, type of growth and originating from D. bigibbum. This species name is known mainly to collectors.
Is there a difference between Phalaenopsis and Dendrobium?
A specific species name often discourages gardeners who are not familiar with the intricacies of orchid classification. Dendrobium and phalaenopsis are actually 2 different kinds of orchids, each of which is represented by a huge number of species.
The dendrobium phalaenopsis is a representative of the genus Dendrobium, and it got its specific name not because of the relationship with the phalaenopsis, but due to the similar appearance of the flowers.
In addition, due to the similarity in pronunciation, the dendrobium is sometimes mistakenly called the "arboretum." To avoid confusion, let’s say that the arboretum is a territory designated for cultivation in open ground of woody plants (trees, shrubs, vines) placed according to systematic, geographical, ecological, decorative and other signs (definition from Wikipedia). Therefore, you will never see orchids in the arboretum, even in the photo.
General care for Dendrobium Phalaenopsis before and after flowering.
The main types of Dendrobiums that are sold in our stores are Dendrobium Phalaenopsis and Dendrobium Nobile. Despite the general similarity, they have different outwardly flowers and differ in care. In our article, we will talk about the Dendrobium Phalaenopsis. It is named so because its flowers are very similar to the flowers of Phalaenopsis, although this is a completely different species.
This is an easy orchid to care for. It can be grown both in plastic pots and on the block from any material convenient for you. Basically, coconut or cork oak bark peeled from the contents is used as a block.
This species, like most orchids - epiphytes, grows in nature on tree trunks, without parasitizing them, tree trunks are used only as a support (photo No. 1). In flower shops, we can only purchase hybrid Dendrobium orchids in plastic pots.
Most Dendrobiums are plants of the monsoon climate, the features of which are the predominance of precipitation in summer and their almost complete absence in winter, therefore they have a pronounced dormant period. This rest period falls on the autumn-winter period.
With the onset of spring, the growing season begins, the orchid needs
- air temperature from + 20 ° С to + 24 ° С,
- humidity - not less than 70-80%,
- prefers bright but diffused lighting.
With the advent of young growths (photo No. 2), fertilizing should be applied 1-2 times a week with a balanced fertilizer (nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium-microelements) at a concentration two times lower than for other indoor plants.
If the Dendrobium Phalaenopsis is located on the windows of the southern landmark, then from the second half of March it is necessary to ensure that the bright sun does not harm the young shoots and be sure to shade it with a light curtain at noon. You can use aluminum blinds, but you need to be careful, if their lamellas are incorrectly directed, they can also reflect the flow of light and cause thermal burns to both bulbs and leaves. The optimal window sill for this plant is the eastern one (photo No. 3)
In the summer, caring for Dendobium is:
- air temperature - up to + 27 ° С,
- high humidity
- fertilizers - up to once a week.
In fact, spring, summer is the time of growth of young shoots and their full formation to the size of last year's pseudobulbs that matured. During this period, the role of the bulb is to accumulate as many useful substances and moisture as possible, as it happens under natural conditions, which in principle is characteristic of plants leading an epiphytic lifestyle.
As soon as the Dendrobium orchid has stopped growing, and bulbs (former shoots-sprouts) have inflated, we begin to feed with fertilizer with an increased percentage of potassium and phosphorus (IMPORTANT!) For laying flower buds, for the brightness of flowering and their abundant budding. Some archdioces recommend applying phosphorus-potassium fertilizing a little earlier, at the time of the formation of the new bulb, about 1/2 of the maternal size. You can use fertilizer for flowering indoor plants (for example, Mr. Color Violet or Gilea for decorative flowering or any other) at a concentration two times lower than that indicated for other plants, or better - special fertilizer for orchids according to the label (I recommend Mr. Color Orchid )
Mass flowering occurs in late summer - early fall. The difference in air temperature day-night stimulates flowering even a difference of 5 ° C.
With the cooler nights approaching, at the end of August a small flower stalk appears on the crown of the bulb (photo No. 4), which, under good lighting, develops very quickly and forms buds along the entire length (photo No. 5).
Peduncles can develop both at the top of pseudobulbs, and in the upper axils of the leaves (photo No. 6). The more tuberidia (bulb, pseudobulb) the bush has, the stronger the plant as a whole and the more spring-summer it will be able to form new bulbs, ready for full, abundant flowering. In principle, flower stalks can also appear on last year's not prosperous props.
And here is the result - Dendrobium Phalaenopsis bloomed. Stunningly beautiful flowers (photo No. 7, 8, 9), which really look like flowers of another type of orchid - Phalaenopsis!
Caring for the orchid with Dendrobium after flowering is to reduce watering, which will force the plant to rest. The rest period falls at the end of autumn - the beginning of winter, this period is not as pronounced as it occurs in nature, but the plant must be allowed to rest and gain strength during the winter.
- average winter temperature from + 15 ° С to + 20 ° С,
- air humidity as high as possible,
- watering - occasionally - once every one and a half to two weeks from a watering can along the edge of the pot.
The lower the room temperature, the less watering. As soon as young shoots (growths) appeared at the base of the bulb, this is a sign that the plant has woken up, ahead of spring, we resume watering and feeding.
Dendrobium Phalaenopsis Care
Dendrobium Phalaenopsis home care is very simple. It will develop quickly and unhindered in plastic pots or from other material that you may like more. Often, cork oak blocks or a coconut shell carefully cleaned are used for this purpose. Dendrobium Phalaenopsis is not classified as a parasitic plant, tree trunks, where it grows in a natural environment, the plant needs as a support.
In the case of cultivation, it is better to give preference to a clay pot, which will provide the plant with guaranteed stability. The size of the pot should be guided by the size of the root of the plant. It should freely exit the pot. It is important that the distance from the sides is not less than 1 centimeter. Orchid Dendrofalenopsis can also develop well in a plastic pot.
To transplant the Dendrobium phalaenopsis hybrid, a small or light colored ceramic or clay pot is used. To ensure good air circulation and access of light in the pot should be openings.
As waterproof drainage, a layer of rubble, broken brick or pieces of polystyrene can be laid at the bottom. Moreover, the drainage layer should be thicker towards the center of the pot. Next, without tamping, a layer of substrate is laid.
As dishes for deciduous Dendrobium phalaenopsis use baskets with fern and even ordinary planks. Due to the fact that the stems of this type of orchids hang down freely, the dishes with the plant should be hung. This will allow the plant to maximize the use of sunlight.
At the end of the transplant procedure, the plant itself and the surface of the substrate are sprayed. Regular watering begins after the appearance of the first roots.
We hope that the information on caring for the hybrid Dendrobium phalaenopsis at home will help you not only in transplanting the plant, but also will provide the orchid with a long growing season, accompanied by abundant flowering.
Among the climatic conditions for the hybrid Dendrobium phalaenopsis, direct sunlight is considered the most critical, the direct effect of which must be excluded.
Although it will be most useful for the plant to settle down on the windowsill from the southeast side, you can experiment a bit and find a more suitable place in your house.
In winter, when the level of illumination decreases markedly, the plant can react with almost complete cessation of growth. In this case, it is recommended to provide additional lighting for the orchid.
By its ability to survive in difficult climatic conditions, the hybrid Dendrobium phalaenopsis is truly an opportunist. The temperature range in which the plant can exist ranges from + 10 ° C to + 42 ° C, occasionally even going beyond these limits.
If we talk about optimal temperatures, then for Dendrobium phalaenopsis it is +18 + 25 ° C.
Orchid prefers a rather high humidity of 70-80%, within which the processes of carbon dioxide absorption and oxygen evolution gain the necessary speed, and the plant blooms lushly.
Watering the hybrid Dendrobium phalaenopsis
The need for a hybrid in water depends on air temperature and light intensity. These indicators accelerate the metabolism, and the orchid needs to be watered more often and more abundantly.
The intensity of irrigation should be combined with lighting. In low light, but good watering in the plant moisture can accumulate. Mostly excess moisture in the orchid accumulates in the upper layer of horses called the velamena. Such accumulations in most cases lead to the development of root rot, therefore, in low light and in winter, the intensity of irrigation of the Dendrobium phalaenopsis orchid is reduced.
For irrigation, you need to use hot tap water, which is pre-cooled to room temperature. This is due to the fact that the water heated at the CHPP is pre-treated both for softening and for disinfection. The output is softened water, ideal for watering hybrids Dendrobium phalaenopsis. In some cases, it is allowed to mix such water with distilled in a ratio of one to one.
In some cases, you can water using the hot shower method. It consists in watering the stems and leaves of a plant with water at a temperature of + 35 + 40C. Water should drain to the roots. After complete drying, the plants of such a shower are repeated. For each plant of the hybrid Dendrobium phalaenopsis, the time of complete drying will be strictly individual. In hot weather - 2-3 days, in cloudy and cool - up to 20.
The average time for orchids to absorb nutrients is about a week.
To determine the need for watering, as well as how moist the soil is, milking the hybrid Dendrobium phalaenopsis can be done using an ordinary wooden stick. To do this, they stick it into the substrate to the very bottom of the pot. Watering the plant is necessary if the wooden stick removed from the substrate is dry. It should be borne in mind that in the center the substrate is wetter than along the edges of the pot.
An orchid of this species should be watered in the morning. Caring for Dendrofalenopsis in this regard requires the use of cool water. The irrigation schedule for a plant may depend on the type of pot in which the orchid is planted, temperature, and also the time of year. As a rule, you need to water the orchid more often in the warmer months and less often in the cooler months. While Dendrobium is in active growth, the roots and culture medium should be moist (watered about once a week), but dryness will not damage the orchid when it is no longer active.
When caring for Dendrobium Phalaenopsis, you must monitor the humidity. Orchid Dendrobium in this regard is not capricious, the Phalaenopsis orchid requires a humidity range for cultivation - 50-60% humidity.If you need to increase the humidity of the environment, you can place an orchid next to the humidifier. Remember that you must have sufficient air movement for your orchids. The room should be regularly ventilated.
Very often, flower growers doubt whether it is necessary to prune the plant after flowering. This is only allowed when the orchid begins to dry. In this case, pruning is carried out carefully with sanitized sharp scissors. Orchid Dendrobium Phalaenopsis will not benefit from this procedure if it still has green buds on a pseudobulb.
Orchid dendrofalenopsis needs this procedure every two years, or when the ground becomes moist and moisture is not so well absorbed by the roots. Before re-planting, you need to remove all the old medium and trim the damaged roots with a sterile cutting tool. This type of plant tends to grow better in smaller pots, where the roots fit snugly together, however, as soon as the roots begin to outgrow the pot, the time has come to transplant.
Period of stagnation
There is no pronounced period of stagnation in the orchid. However, it ceases to grow rapidly in a period when the amount of daylight is reduced. In the autumn and winter period, you can notice that the green top of the orchid no longer develops, and the root system is also stopped in development. This is a normal occurrence. To maintain the orchid during stagnation, you need to reduce the frequency of watering.
Orchid Phalaenopsis Dendrobium home care needs regular feeding when it is in the growth phase. Fertilizing every two to three weeks during the summer months and once a month in winter should be enough.
For proper care of the orchid Dendrobium phalaenopsis, in addition to watering, it is recommended to use also spraying. It will be appropriate for surface dressing.
In hot weather, to cool the leaves, spray only their outer surface. On the inside of the leaf plate are stomata, responsible for gas exchange in the plant. If water enters the stomata, then they open up, which disrupts gas exchange and negatively affects the orchid, especially in winter.
The main and only way of reproduction is vegetative.
Dendrobium phalaenopsis can form children on pseudobulbs, which can be planted as soon as they grow new roots 1-2 cm long.
Old well overgrown bushes can be split when transplanted, but at the same time, each delenka should have several pseudobulbs and a new growth.
Reproduction Dendrobium Phalaenopsis occurs vegetatively. Before propagation, the plant must go through a flowering phase. When the pseudobulb has ripened, a peduncle will appear on it. On it, in turn, buds will form that bloom into flowers. One pseudobulb can contribute to the flowering period twice, but only if the ideal regimen of care.
The flowering process often occurs in the spring-summer period. Dendrobium Phalaenopsis and its varieties may be different and have an effect on flowering time and its features. The variety also determines the shade of the flower, it can be white, purple, pink and lilac.
Owners of the Dendrobium Phalaenopsis need to know that when the kids went after flowering, the time for reproduction came. Separation of children occurs after their complete formation. The connection point is dried after separation, for which children are left on the street for a day. For planting Dendrobium Phalaenopsis, you need better quality soil and bark (fraction - from 5 to 10 mm).
Advice! For the baby Dendrobium Phalaenopsis, the temperature regime should correspond to the regime of an adult plant.
There are two alternative breeding options: cuttings and dividing the bush. Both options are carried out after flowering. Well, you already know how the Dendrobium Phalaenopsis blooms.
Despite the relative seamlessness of the species, certain difficulties with its content can still arise. Most often they are associated with loss of roots and flowering.
The peculiarity of the Dendrobium phalaenopsis is that it is not predisposed to diseases and parasite infection. Therefore, if something is wrong with the flower, the reason must be sought in the conditions of detention:
- no colors - wrong temperature or insufficient lighting;
- buds fall - the presence of drafts or stresses;
- weak plant - inappropriate soil or lack of fertilizer;
- roots start to rot or pseudobulbs are too watery - an excess of moisture.
If the plant has lost its roots, it can still be saved. To do this, all rotten residues are removed, and damaged ones are processed. Then it is placed on a stand made of moss, spraying and top dressing is carried out on a leaf. After the emergence of new roots, the orchid can already be moved into a pot of soil, be sure to attach it to the support.
The roots grow fast enough, but in order to stimulate their growth, the substrate must be periodically sprayed with water.
Possible diseases and pests and methods of dealing with them
Very often, orchid owners complain about the lack of flowering. This happens due to poor lighting. This factor may have an effect on the size of pseudobulbs. Often the wrong lighting mode can cause a discoloration of the leaves of the plant. Not many people know that a marbled shade of leaves can indicate an insufficient amount of nutrients in the soil. In this case, the plant may need additional nutrition.
You need to monitor the leaves to determine the presence of pests. So the yellow color of the leaves is the first wake-up call. Change the temperature regime and follow the plant, if there are no changes in the positive direction, most likely the plant is faced with an attack of pests.
The main enemies of the Dendrobium Phalaenopsis can be considered aphids, mealy worms and, of course, herbivorous mites. If in the case of diseases it is enough to establish a care regimen, then to control pests, it will be necessary to completely clean the leaves of the plant and treat them with special preparations.
Dendrobium resuscitation without roots
With complete loss of roots it is better to extract the plant from the pot, remove all rotten roots, treat the damage and put it on a substrate from sphagnum.
Plants without roots sprayed and fed on a sheet, to prevent wrinkling of leaves and pseudobulbs. In this form, the plant is contained until the appearance of new growth. It is on the new growth that the roots will form.
After they grow a few millimeters, the plant can be arranged in a pot with a substrate, tied to a supportso that the dendrobium does not stagger and does not injure young roots.
Roots will quickly increase in size and develop the substrate. To stimulate root growth, substrate surface it is necessary to spray periodically.
Dendrobium without roots.
Lack of flowering
If the plant refuses to bloom, First of all, it is necessary to analyze the conditions of detention and especially the care. Perhaps, to stimulate flowering, it is enough to simply lower the night temperature of the content or organize illumination.
Signs of improper care
The following signs of the dendrobium plant are observed, requiring adjustment of the conditions of detention:
- The stalks are wrinkled - a sign of insufficient watering of the orchid.
- New shoots are too thin - with sufficient care they should be denser.
- Loss of lower leaves after flowering is considered normal.
- Lack of colors: low light, no dormant period.
- Yellowing and loss of leaves - poor watering, temperature changes, rotting of the roots, overfeeding of the plant.
- Rotting of the roots - watering during the dormant period, waterlogging of the substrate, decomposed soil, non-sterile soil substrate during planting.
- Transplant into a new clean soil, leaving only clean, healthy roots.
- Falling buds - content at high temperature, the presence of pests.
- In all cases, home care for dendrobium should be adjusted.
Care after flowering ...
In the life cycle of the dendrobium nobile, three phases are distinguished: flowering, growth and peace.
In the first phase, which most often occurs in springtime, flowers bloom. Their number reaches 20 pieces. Sooner or later, flowering ends: the flowers wither and fall. Then the question arises, what to do next?
Leave the orchid in a cool place and wait for new growths to appear. Stop intensive plant hydration. A new growth should let out its own roots. When their size reaches a few centimeters, you can resume watering. The soil should dry well between waterings. When new growths are strong enough and begin to inflate, it is recommended to temporarily stop watering, lower the temperature.
Keep without watering for a week. This stimulates the laying of flower buds. With the advent of the buds, begin to water again, otherwise it will grow the children, not the flowers.
Fully dried flower stalks are cut off after flowering. Greens leave or crop.
Remove pseudobulb after flowering unnecessarily should not be. Only in the case of its complete drying, when she gave back the accumulated nutrients and water. If there are green buds on the pseudobulb that have not yet bloomed, then the orchid will probably produce new flowers. Properly caring for the dendrobium nobile, you can achieve repeated flowering.
The third stage: the leaves turn yellow, the leaves fall, preparation for the rest period is in progress. Watering is reduced, and the introduction of additional power is completely eliminated.
The rest period falls at the end of autumn - the beginning of winter.
Since the end of October, the Dendrobium begins a period of rest, which lasts about 2 months. It is not as pronounced as in the natural environment, but the plant will need rest. At the same time stop watering. The introduction of additional power is completely excluded. Temperature during the day + 15-18 ℃, at night + 8-10 ° C. The plant is exposed in the lightest, driest place.
If it is not possible to create a daily temperature fluctuation, then the plant is exposed at a constant temperature of about 10-12 ° C.
The appearance of young shoots at the base of the bulb means the end of the dormant period, watering is resumed. The plant is fed with increased concentrations of potassium and phosphorus, which are necessary for the formation of flower buds.
Dendrobium flowering usually lasts 8-12 weeks, at high ambient temperatures it can be reduced. Lack of colors: insufficient lighting, no rest period provided.